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Contents 1. Concept of Education ................................................................................................... 1–33 • Meaning of education • Definitions of education • Nature of education • Aims of education • Philosophy of education • Scientific and philosophical foundations of nursing • School of education philosophy 2. Formulating Objectives .............................................................................................. 34–48 • Educational Objectives: – Definition – Types – Domains – Levels – Elements and writing of educational objectives 3. Teaching and Learning Process .................................................................................. 49–75 • Nature and characteristic of learning – Definition of teaching – Principles of teaching – Maxims of teaching – Phases of teaching – Definition of learning – Characteristics of learning process – Laws of learning • Lesson plan • Class management 4. Review of Communication Process ............................................................................. 76–95 • Meaning and definitions of communication • Communication features • Importance of communication • Communication process • Principles of communication • Types of communication/communication techniques • Barriers to communication • Overcoming communication barrier 5. Interpersonal Relationship ....................................................................................... 96–105 • Definition • Characteristics of interpersonal relationship • Importance of interpersonal relationship • Forms of Interpersonal relationship • Different types of interpersonal relationship

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Textbook of Nursing Education—Communication and Educational Technology • •

Johari Window Nurse patient relationship

6. Human Relationship ............................................................................................... 106–114 • Meaning and definitions • Characteristics of human relation • Understanding self • Human relation motivation and team work • Types of human relationship to be maintain • Approaches to human relations • Importance of human relations • Group dynamic and team building • Human relations in Nursing 7. Guidance and Counseling ....................................................................................... 115–135 • Definition of the terms guidance and counseling • Meaning of guidance and counseling • Needs for guidance and counseling in general and specifically in nursing • Purposes of guidance • Scopes of guidance and counseling • Principles of guidance • Types of guidance • Principles of counseling • The types of counseling • Comparison between guidance and counseling • Tools and techniques of guidance and counseling • Ethical issues in counseling • Problems in guidance and counseling • Emerging trends in guidance and counseling • Process of counseling • Organization of school guidance services 8. Instruction Strategy ............................................................................................... 136–181 • Teaching method • Teaching strategies classification • Advantages of Lecture method • Demonstration method • Discussion method – Small group – Buzz method – Fishbowl – Seminar – Symposium – Panel discussion – Horse shoe – Crossover – Circular questioning – Talk around/Go-around – Write around • Workshop • Simulation

Contents • • • • •

xi

Self directed learning (SDL) Computer assisted learning (CAL) Programmed instruction Microteaching Clinical teaching – Side by side teaching – Case study method – Case presentation – Nursing Rounds – Nursing care conference

9. Instructional Media and Methods ........................................................................... 182–214 • Definition of AV aid • Importance of AV aid • Classification of Instructional aid • Types of Chalk board – Marker board – Adhesive display – Flannelboard – Hook and loop board – Magnetic board – Bulletin board – Graphic aid -Charts and posters-Flipcharts, flash card – 3 D material - Models, Puppets Dioramas – Projected aids-OHP, LCD – Printed aids-Pamphlets and leaflets 10. Measurement and Evaluation ................................................................................. 215–231 • Meaning and definitions of measurement and evaluation • Difference between evaluation and measurement • Purposes of evaluation • Principles of evaluation • Types of evaluation • Steps of evaluation • Phases of evaluation • Process of evaluation • Problems in evaluation • Selection of appropriate evaluation technique • Classification of evaluation techniques 11. Nonstandardized Test ............................................................................................. 232–289 • Test – Test definition – Purposes of classroom test – Characteristics of good test – Classification of test • Achievement test – Definition – Purposes – Types - Norm reference - Criterion reference

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Textbook of Nursing Education—Communication and Educational Technology



• •



• • • •



- Teacher made - Standardized - Purposes - Problem – Differences between standardized test and teacher made test Teacher made test – Point to keep in mind – Construction of classroom achievement test Question Banking Teacher made paper-and-pencil tests – Essay question – Advantages and limitation of essay question – Suggestion for improving essay question – Criteria for using different achievement test – Essay vs MCQ – Scoring essay tests, suggestion for scoring essays Mulitple choice Items – Meaning Part of multiple choice Item – Varieties of multiple choice items – Writing good multiple choice items – Strengths of multiple choice items – Limitations of multiple choice items – Sample multiple choice items related to blooms taxonomy True false Short answer Teacher-made rating scale and checklists Rating scale – Characteristics of rating scales – Rating scale according to different categories - Types of rating scale * Numerical * Graphical * Percentage * Standard scale * Scale of cumulated points * Forced choice scale - Other types of rating scale * Q-short * Semantic differential scale osgood scale * Summated scale * Staple scale * Gutman scale * Thurstone scale * Limitation of rating scales Checklist – Definition and meaning – Characteristics of checklist – Advantages and disadvantages – Example of checklist – Points to keep in mind regarding checklist

Contents • •







xiii

Teacher-made performance and product assessment OSCE/OSPE – Definition and meaning – Features of the objective structured clinical examination – Advantages – Methodology - Requirements for conducting OSCE – Task included in OSCE – Steps of conducting OSCE – Strengths – Limitation Anecdotal record – Meaning and definition – Characteristics of anecdotal records – General guideline for writing anecdotal record – Purpose of maintain anecdotal record – Advantages and disadvantages of anecdotal record Sociometry – Meaning and definition – Use of sociometry – Advantages and disadvantages Critical incident technique – Component of critical incident technique – CIT five step process – Uses of critical incident technique – Advantages and disadvantages of critical incident technique

12. Standardized Test .................................................................................................. 290–306 • Standardized ability test • Standardized achievement test • Intelligence test • Aptitude test • Achievement vs aptitude test • Standardized personality test • Interest inventory 13. Curriculum .......................................................................................................... 307–329 • Curriculum • Definition curriculum • Determinants of curriculum • Approaches to curriculum • Types of curriculum • Principles of curriculum construction • Process of curriculum development • Elements of curriculum development • Curriculum design models • Course equivalence • Credit system 14. Information, Education & Communication for Health ............................................. 330–341 • Health, illness and behavior • Healthy and unhealthy behavior • Understanding behavior

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Textbook of Nursing Education—Communication and Educational Technology •





Health education – Steps of planning and delivering health education – Goal of health education – Health education with individuals – Health education with groups – Health education with community Methods & media for communicating health messages – Communicating the health message – The nature and role of communication – Some prerequisites to efficient communication – Putting educational methods into practice Methods and media – Using mass media – Definition – The mass media used for – When to use the media – Types of mass media – Advantages vs disadvantages of mass media.

Glossary ........................................................................................................................................... 343–347 Suggested Reading .......................................................................................................................... 348–350 Index ................................................................................................................................................ 351–352

INC Syllabus Communication and Educational Technology Placement: Second Year

Time: Theory - 90 Hours

Course Description: This course is designed to help the students acquire an understanding of the principles and methods of communication and teaching. It helps to develop skill in communicating effectively, maintaining effective interpersonal relations, teaching individuals and groups in clinical, community health and educational settings. Time Unit (Hrs) Th. Pr.

Learning Objective

Content

I

5

• Describe the communication process • Identify techniques of effective communication

Review of Communication • Process • Process; elements and channe• • Facilitators • • Barriers and methods of overcoming • Techniques

II

5

• Establish effective interpersonal relations with patients, families & co-workers

Interpersonal relations • Purpose & types • Phases • Barriers & methods of overcoming • Johari Window

• Lecture Discussion • Role Plays • Exercises with audio/video tapes • Process recording

• Short Answer • Objective type

III

5

• Develop effective human relations in context of nursing

Human relations • Understanding self • Social behavior, motivation, social attitudes • Individual and groups • Groups & individual • Human relations in context of nursing • Group dynamics • Team work

• Lecture Discussion • Sociometry • Group games • Psychometric exercises followed by discussion

• Short Answer • Objective type • Respond to test based on critical incidents

IV

10

• Develop basic skill of counseling and guidance

Guidance & counseling • Definition • Purpose, scope and need • Basic principles • Organization of counseling services

• Lecture Discussion • Role play on counseling in different situations

• Short Answer • Objective type • Assess performance

5

Teaching Learning Activities

Lecture Discussion Role plays Exercises with audio/video tapes

Assessment methods

• Respond to critical incidents • Short answers • Objective type

Contd...

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Textbook of Nursing Education—Communication and Educational Technology

Contd... Time Unit (Hrs) Th. Pr.

V

5

VI

10

10 •

Learning Objective

Content

Teaching Learning Activities

• Types of counseling, approaches • Role and preparation of counselor • Issues for counseling in nursing: students and practitioners • Counseling process - steps & techniques, tools of counselor • Managing disciplinary problems • Management of crisis & referral

followed by discussion

• Describe the philosophy & principles of education • Explain the teaching learning process

Principles of education & • teaching learning process • Education: meaning, • philosophy, aims, functions & principles • • Nature and characteristics of • learning, • Principles and maxims of teaching, • Formulating objectives; general and specific • Lesson planning • Classroom management

Lecture. Discussion Prepare lesson plan Micro teaching Exercise on writing objectives

Demonstrate teaching skill using various teaching methods in clinical, classroom and community settings

Methods of teachilig • Lecture • Lecture, demonstration, Discussion group discussion, seminar, • Conduct 5 symposium, panel teaching discussion, role play, sessions using project, field trip, workshop, different exhibition, programmed methods & instruction, computer media assisted learning, micro teaching problem based learning, Self instructional module and simulation, etc. • Clinical teaching methods: case method, nursing round & reports, bedside clinic, conference (individual & group) process recording

Assessment methods in role play situations

• Short Answer • Objective type • Assess lesson plans & teaching sessions

• Short Answer • Objective type • Assess teaching sessions

Contd...

INC Syllabus

xvii

Contd... Time Unit (Hrs) Th. Pr.

Learning Objective

Content

VII

10

• Prepare and use different types of educational media effectively

Educational media • Lecture • Purposes & types of AV Discussion Aids, principles and sources • Demonstration etc. • Prepare different • Graphic aids: chalk board, teaching aidschart, graph, poster, flash projected & non cards, flannel graph, projected bulletin, cartoon • Three dimensional aids: objects, specimens, models; puppets • Printed aids: pamphlets & leaflets • Projected aids: slides, overhead projector, films, TV, VCR/VCD, camera, microscope, LCD • Audio aids: tape recorder, public address system • Computer

• Short Answer • Objective type • Assess the teaching aids prepared

VIII

5

• Prepare different types of questions for assessment of knowledge, skills and attitudes

Assessment • Purpose & scope of evaluation & assessment • Criteria for selection of assessment techniques and methods • Assessment of knowledge: essay type questions, Short answer questions (SAQ), Multiple choice questions (MCQ) • Assessment of skills: observation checklist, practical exam, Viva, Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) • Assessment of Attitudes: Attitude scales

• Short Answer • Objective type • Assess the strategies used in practice teaching sessions and exercise sessions

8

7

Teaching Learning Activities

• Lecture Discussion • Exercise on writing different types of assessment tools

Assessment methods

Contd...

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Textbook of Nursing Education—Communication and Educational Technology

Contd... Time Unit (Hrs) Th. Pr.

Learning Objective

IX

• Teach individuals, groups and communities about health with their active participation

5

Content

• • •

• •



Information, Education & communication for health (lEC) Health behavior & health education Planning for health education Health education with individuals, groups & communities Communicating health messages Methods & media for communicating health messages Using mass media

Teaching Learning Activities

Assessment methods

• Lecture Discussion • Plan & conduct health education sessions for individuals, group & communities

• Short Answer • Objective type • Assess the planning & conduct of the educational session

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Contents

Contents 1. Concept of Education ................................................................................................... 1–33 • Meaning of...

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