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Contents .......................................................... Preface xii To the Student

. 1

Revising with a Word Processor Peer Evaluation of Drafts 50

xix

Collaborative

Rhetoric

1 . 4

The Purposes of Writing 3 The Audience for Your Writing 6 The Qualities of Good Writing 9

2

10

Planning and Drafting Your Paper

to Revise

5

34

Sharpening Proofreading

Sentences

and Words

Your Draft

Writing the Introduction Selecting a Title

45

63

43

45 and Conclusion

45

68

Impressions

74

Purpose 75 Sensory Impressions 75 Dominant Impression 77 Vantage Point 78 Selection of Details 79 Arrangement of Details Ethical Issues 80

Strengthening Paragraph Structure and Development 42

60

Events

Description: Presenting

34

the Whole Essay

Relating

Writing a Narrative 67 Example Student Essay of Narration: "The Beach Bum" by Gail Bartlett The Critical Edge 72

33

Your Paper Considering

59

Key Events 64 Dialogue 65 Ethical Issues 66

12

Revising and Editing Preparing

Narration: Purpose 61 Action 61 Conflict 62 Point of View

~Understanding the Assignment 13 Zeroing In on a Topic 13 Gathering Information 21 Organizing the Information 23 Developing a Thesis Statement 26 Writing the First Draft 29 Planning and Drafting with a Word Processor 32

3

57

Maintaining and Reviewing a Portfolio

2

Writing: A First look

Writing and Ethics

Writing

49

80

Writing a Description 81 Example Student Essay of Description: "The Big One" by Rebecca Mutch 83 The Critical Edge 86 v

vi 6

Contents Process Analysis: Explaining How

Organizing a Comparison Using Analogy 124 Ethical Issues 125

88

Kinds of Process Analysis Papers Ethical Issues 91

89

Writing a Comparison 126 Example Student Essay of Comparison: "Different Shifts, Different Actions" by Claire Mutter 128

Writing a Process Analysis 91 Example Student Essay of Process Analysis: "The ABC's of CPR" by Kathy Petroski 95 The Critical Edge 98

7 Illustration: 100

Making Yourself Clear Selecting Appropriate Examples Number of Examples 101 Organizing the Examples 102 Ethical Issues 103 Writing an Illustration

The Critical Edge

8

101

Patterns in Causal Analysis

132 133

Reasoning Errors in Causal Analysis Ethical Issues 137

135

Writing a Causal Analysis 137 Example Student Essay of Cause and Effect: "Why Students Drop Out of College" by Diann Fisher 140

103

The Critical Edge

144

107

Classification: Grouping into Categories

11 109

Writing a Classification 115 Example Student Essay of Classification: "Undesirable Produce Market Customers" by Clarence DeLong 116 The Critical Edge 118

Comparison: Showing Relationships Selecting Items for Comparison 121 Developing a Comparison 122

Definition: Establishing Boundaries Types of Definitions Ethical Issues 151

Selecting Categories 111 Number of Categories 112 Developing Categories 112 Ethical Issues 114

9

130

10 Cause and Effect: ExplainingWhy

Example Student Essay of Illustration: "A Lesson from Nature" by Mike Braendle 105 The Critical Edge

123

120

146

147

Writing an Extended Definition 152 Example Student Essay of Definition: "The Food Chain" by Michael Galayda 154 The Critical Edge 158

12

Argument: Convincing Others The Rational Appeal 161 The Emotional Appeal 170 The Ethical Appeal 171 Ferreting Out Fallacies 172 Ethical Issues 176

160

Contents Writing an Argument

177

18

Example Student Essay of Argument: "The Right to Bear Arms" by Brenda Buehrle 182 The Critical Edge 185

13

The Elements of Literature Ethical Issues 288 Writing a Paper on Literature

19

187

188

195

14 Paragraphs

Characteristics of Effective Paragraphs 195 Paragraphs with Special Functions 211

Effective Sentences Strategies

Toward Clear Diction

17

20

232

235

235

Effect

250

Eliminating

253

Flawed Diction

299 300

Research Guide The library Research Paper

313 .. 315

322

258

The Essay Examination Studying for the Examination Types of Test Questions 259

Preparation for Mailing E-Mail Correspondence Types of Letters 300 Resumes 309

297

Writing Your Research Paper 355 Example Student Research Paper: "House Arrest: An Attractive Alternative to Incarceration" by Keith Jacque 358 Using a Word Processor 373

241

Special Stylistic Techniques

295

Learning About Your Library 316 Choosing a Topic 317 Assembling a Working Bibliography Taking Notes 345 Organizing and Outlining 352 Ethical Issues 354

219

Diction, Tone, Style Toward Rhetorical

.

218

Beyond the Single Sentence

16

288

Business letters and Resumes Letter Language 295 Parts of the Business Letter

Example Essay Using Several Writing Strategies: "Eating Alone in Restaurants" by BruceJay Friedman 190 The Critical Edge 193

Sentence

267

187

Why and How to Mix Strategies Ethical Issues 188

15

266

Writing About literature

Example Student Essay on Literature: "Scratchy Wilson: No Cardboard Character" by Wendell Stone 291

Mixing the Writing Strategies

Problem/Solution Report Evaluation Report 189

vii

258

Preparing to Write 259 Writing the Examination Answer

260

21

Documenting Sources Preparing Proper MLA and APA Bibliographic References 376 Handling In-Text Citations 391

376

viii

Contents Handling Quotations

397

"Sound and Fury" by Dan Greenburg 436 "Momma's

AvoidingPlagiarism 400

Encounter"

by Maya Angelou

439

"For My Indian Daughter" by Lewis Sawaquat 443

22 Additional Research Strategies: Interviews, Questionnaires, Direct Observations The Value of Primary Research

Description

403

403

General Principles for Primary Research 404 Ethical Issues Interviews

405

406

Example Student Interview Report: "Budget Cuts Mfect State Police: An Interview Report with Officer Robert Timmons" Holly Swain 409 Questionnaires

Example Student Questionnaire Report: "Fipdings from Smoking Questionnaire Distributed to Bartram College Students" by Kelly Reetz 416 Direct Observations 417

Illustration

425

.

427

Following an Effective Reading Strategy 427 "The Appeal of the Androgynous by Amy Gross 430 Reading as a Writer

Man"

Classification

488

"What Are Friends For?" by Marion Winik 488 "The Men We Carry in Our Minds" by ScottRussellSanders 491 "The Myth of the Latin Woman: IJust Met a Girl Named Maria" by Judith Ortiz Cofer 494 "Which Stooge Are You?" by Ron Geraci 499

432

Comparison

Rhetorical Table of Contents Narration

474

"Binge Drinking, A Campus Killer" by SabrinaRubin Erdely 474 "Rambos of the Road" by Martin Gottfried 478 "Going for Broke" by Matea Goldand David Ferrell 481 "The Company Man" by Ellen Goodman 485

Example Student Observation Report: "Observations of an Inner-City Apartment Building" by Caleb Thomas 421

Strategies for Successful Reading

461

"Fast Track to Perfection" by Ian Dunbar 461 From "The Spider and the Wasp" by AlexanderPetrunkevitch 465 "Let's Get Vertical!" by Beth Wald 467 "The Knife"by RichardSelzer 470

by

410

Reader

"When the Full Moon Shines Its Magic over Monument Valley" byJohn V Young 446 "In the Jungle" by Annie Dillard 448 "Assembly Line Adventure" by LesleyHazleton 452 "Once More to the Lake" by E. B. White 456 Process Analysis

Example Student Questionnaire: "Survey on Public Smoking" by Kelly Reetz 413

.

446

434

"The Perfect Picture" byJamesAlexander Thom 434

"Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrasts" by Bruce Catton 504 "Conversational Ballgames" by Nancy MastersonSakamoto 507 "Then and Now" by Mary PiPher 510

504

ix

Contents

Thematic Table of Contents

"Private Language, Public Language" by Richard Rodriguez 520 "Coming Home" by MarjorieWaters 525

Life's Changes

527

Cause and Effect "Old Father Time Becomes a Terror" by Richard Tomkins 527 "Gender Gap in Cyberspace" by DeborahTannen 531 "Why Marriages Fail" by Anne RoiPhe 533 "Black Men and Public Space" by BrentStaPles 536

540

Definition

"The Sweet Smell of Success Isn't All That Sweet" by Laurence Shames 540 "The Power of Play" by Hara Estroff Marano 542 "The Insufficiency of Honesty" by StePhenL. Carter 547 "When Is It Rape?" by Nancy Gibbs 552

560

Argument "Death and Justice" by Edward 1. Koch 560 "Execution" by Anna Quindlen 564 "Sexual Harassment Is a Serious Problem at Universities" by Marilyn Gaye Piety "Sexual Harassment Is Overestimated"

566

by Gretchen Morgenson 571 "I Have a Dream" by Martin Luther King,Jr. "AJournalist's View of Black Economics" by William RasPberry 580 "Close the Borders to All Newcomers"

576

by Daniel James 586 "Give Us Your Best, Your Brightest" by StePhen Moore 590

Mixing the Writing Strategies "Blur: Cheetahs. Ranchers. Hope." by Susan Zimmerman 595 "She's Your Basic L.O.L. in N.A.D." by PerriKlass 601 "The Uses of a Word" by GloriaNaylor 604

595

"The PerfectPicture" byJamesAlexanderThom 434 "Sound and Fury" by Dan Greenburg 436 "Momma's Encounter" by Maya Angelou 439 "For My Indian Daughter" by Lewis Sawaquat 443 "Once More to the Lake" by E. B. White 456 "The Company Man" by Ellen Goodman 485 "Then and Now" by Mary PiPher 510 "Private Language, Public Language" by RichardRodriguez 520 "Coming Home" by MarjorieWaters 525 "Old Father Time Becomes a Terror" by Richard Tomkins 527 "Why Marriages Fail" by Anne Roiphe 533 "Black Men and Public Space" by Brent StaPles 536

Who We Are "The Appeal of the Androgynous Man" by Amy Gross 430 "Sound and Fury" by Dan Greenburg 436 "Assembly Line Adventure" by LesleyHadeton 452 "Binge Drinking, A Campus Killer" by SabrinaRubin Erdely 474 "Rambos of the Road" by Martin Gottfried 478 "Going for Broke" by Metea Goldand David Ferrell 481 'The Company Man" by Ellen Goodman 485 "What Are Friends For?" by Marion Winik 488 "The Men We Carry in Our Minds" by ScottRussellSanders 491 "The Myth of the Latin Woman" by Judith Ortiz Cofer 494 "Which Stooge Are You?" by Ron Geraci 499 "Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrasts" by Bruce Catton 504 "Then and Now" by Mary Pipher 510 "Gender Gap in Cyberspace" by DeborahTannen 531 . "Why Marriages Fail" by Anne RoiPhe 533 "The Sweet Smell of Success Isn't All That Sweet" by Laurence Shames

540

x

Contents

"The Power of Play" by Hara EstroffMarano 542 "The Insufficiency of Honesty" by StephenL. Carter 547 "The Uses of a Word" by GloriaNaylor 604

"Sexual Harassment Is a Serious Problem at Universities" by Marilyn GayePiety 566 "Sexual Harassment Is Overestimated" by GretchenMorgenson 571

Our Relationship to Nature

Diversity in Our Lives "Momma's Encounter" by Maya Angelou 439 "For My Indian Daughter" by Lewis Sawaquat 443 "The Myth of the Latin Woman" by Judith Ortiz Cofer 494 "Conversational Ballgames" by Nancy MastersonSakamoto 507 "Private Language, Public Language" by Richard Rodriguez 520 "Gender Gap in Cyberspace" by DeborahTannen 531 "Black Men and Public Space" by BrentStaples 536 "Sexual Harassment Is a Serious Problem at Universities" by Marilyn GayePiety 566 "Sexual Harassment Is Overestimated" by GretchenMorgenson 571 "I Have a Dream" by Martin Luther King,Jr. 576 "AJournalist's View of Black Economics" by William RasPberry 580 "Close the Borders to All Newcomers" by DanielJames 586 "Give Us Your Best, Your Brightest" by StephenMoore 590 "The Uses of a Word" by GloriaNaylor 604

"When the Full Moon Shines Its Magic over Monument Valley" byJohn V Young 446 "In the Jungle" by Annie Dillard 448 "Once More to the Lake" by E. B. White 456 From "The Spider and the Wasp" by AlexanderPetrunkevitch 465 "Let's Get Vertical!" by Beth Wald 467 "The Knife" by RichardSelzer 470 "The Power of Play" by Hara EstroffMarano 542 "Blur: Cheetahs. Ranchers. Hope." by Susan Zimmerman 595

Health "Sound and Fury" by Dan Greenburg 436 "The Knife" by RichardSelzer 470 "Binge Drinking, A Campus Killer" by SabrinaRubin Erdely 474 "Rambos of the Road" by Martin Gottfried 478 "Going for Broke" by Matea Cold and David Ferrell 481 "The Company Man" by Ellen Goodman 485 "Old Father Time Becomes a Terror" by Richard Tomkins 527 "The Power of Play" by Hara Estroff Marano 542 "She's Your Basic L.O.L. in N.A.D," by PerriKlass 601

Contemporary Issues Women's Issues "The Appeal of the Androgynous Man" by Amy Gross 430 "The Men We Carry in Our Minds" by ScottRussell Sanders 491 "The Myth of the Latin Woman" by Judith Ortiz Cofer 494 "Then and Now" by Mary Pipher 510 "Gender Gap in Cyberspace" by DeborahTannen 531 "When Is It Rape?" by Nancy Gibbs 552

Crime and Punishment "When Is It Rape?" by Nancy Gibbs 552 "Death and Justice" by Edward I. Koch 560 "Execution" by Anna Quindlen 564 "Sexual Harassment Is a Serious Problem at Universities" by Marilyn GayePiety 566 "Sexual Harassment Is Overestimated" by GretchenMorgenson 571

language

Use and Abuse

"Sound and Fury" by Dan Greenburg 436 "Momma's Encounter" by Maya Angelou 439 "For My Indian Daughter" by Lewis Sawaquat 443 "Fast Track to Perfection" by Ian Dunbar 461 "The Knife" by RichardSelzer 470 "The Myth of the Latin Woman" byJudith Ortiz Cofer 494

xi

Contents "Conversational Ballgames" by Nancy MastersonSakamoto 507 "Private Language, Public Language" by Richard Rodriguez 520 "When Is It Rape?" by Nancy Gibbs 552 "Sexual Harassment Is Overestimated" by GretchenMorgenson 571 "She's Your Basic L.O.L. in N.A.D." by PerriKlass 601 "The Uses of a Word" by GloriaNaylor 604

Run-On Sentences and Comma Splices Subject-Verb Agreement 645

Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement 648 Avoiding Faulty Pronoun Reference 651 Avoiding Unwarranted Shifts in Person 653 Using the Right Pronoun Case

"The Perfect Picture" byJamesAlexanderThom 434 "Momma's Encounter" by Maya Angelou 439 "Black Men and Public Space" by BrentStaples 536 "The Sweet Smell of Success" by LaurenceShames 540 "The Insufficiency of Honesty" by StephenL. Carter 547 "When Is It Rape?" by Nancy Gibbs 552 "Death and Justice" by Edward1. Koch 560 "Execution" by Anna Quindlen 564 "Sexual Harassment Is a Serious Problem at Universities" by Marilyn GayePiety 566 "Sexual Harassment Is Overestimated" by GretchenMorgenson 571 "I Have a Dream" by Martin Luther King,Jr.' 576 "Close the Borders to All Newcomers" by DanielJames 586 "Give Us Your Best, Your Brightest" by StephenMoore 590 "The Uses of a Word" by GloriaNaylor 604

Handbook

607

Sentence Elements

609

Subjects and Predicates Complements Appositives

655

Avoiding Inconsistency in Showing Time 658 Avoiding Misuse of Adjectives and Adverbs 660 Avoiding Misplaced Modifiers 662

Struggling with Ethical Issues

.

643

609

610

.

Avoiding Dangling Modifiers 664 Avoiding Nonparallelism 665 Avoiding Faulty Comparisons 666

Editing to Correct Faulty Punctuation and Mechanics 669 Apostrophes 669 Commas 672 Semicolons 677 Periods, Question Marks, and Exclamation Points 679 Colons, Dashes, Parentheses, and Brackets

681

Quotation Marks 685 Hyphens 687 Capitalization 689 Abbreviations 692 Numbers 693 Italics 695

Spelling

698

Spelling Rules 698 Helpful Spelling Tips 700 List of Troublesome Words 701

611

Parts of Speech 612 Phrases and Clauses 634

Editing to Correct Sentence Errors 641 Sentence Fragments

641

Glossary of Word Usage

705

Acknowledgments

729

Subject Index

734

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Contents

Contents .......................................................... Preface xii To the Student . 1 Revising with a Word Processor Peer Evaluation of...

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